Why Early Memories Fade

by Rachel Baker on April 14, 2014

Have you ever wondered why you can’t remember some things from the first years of your life, but you can perfectly remember other things? Below is a great article about how childhood amnesia seems to “work” and why some things are easier to remember, while others are completely forgotten.

For a long time, scientists thought childhood amnesia occurred because the brains of young children simply couldn’t form lasting memories of specific events. Then, in the 1980s, Bauer and other researchers began testing the memories of children as young as 9 months old, in some cases using gestures and objects instead of words.

“What we found was that even as young as the second year of life, children had very robust memories for these specific past events,” Bauer says. So, she wondered, “Why is it that as adults we have difficulty remembering that period of our lives?”

More studies provided evidence that at some point in childhood, people lose access to their early memories. So several years ago, Bauer and her colleague Marina Larkina decided to study a group of children to see what happened to their memories over time.

Daniel Kahneman says, “we tend to confuse memories with the real experience that gave rise to those memories.”

At age 3, the children were all recorded speaking with a parent about recent events, like visiting an amusement park or a visit from a relative. Then as the kids got older, the researchers checked to see how much they remembered.

In an experiment, people who saw a picture of a big bowl of soup before eating lunch were less hungry a few hours later than those who saw a smaller bowl, regardless of how much they ate at the meal.

And they found that children as old as 7 could still recall more than 60 percent of those early events, while children who were 8 or 9 recalled less than 40 percent. “What we observed was actually the onset of childhood amnesia,” Bauer says.

It’s still not entirely clear why early memories are so fragile. But it probably has to do with the structures and circuits in the brain that store events for future recall, Bauer says.

When a child is younger than 4, those brain systems are still quite immature, Bauer says. “It doesn’t mean they’re not working at all,” she says. “But they’re not working as efficiently — and therefore not as effectively — as they’re going to be working in later childhood, and certainly in adulthood.

Read the whole article here:

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